Nutrition – One of the three important factors in treating diabetes
Healthcpn.com – Nutrition along with diet and exercise is like tripod in the treatment of diabetes, without being taken lightly.
However, due to the lack of knowledge about nutrition, many people have too strict or indiscriminate diets, making treatment ineffective, but also suffering from other diseases …
When is it called diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, which is caused by either absolute or relative insulin deficiency. The disease causes a series of metabolic disorders, first of all, a disorder of glucide metabolism, which causes high blood glucose and the appearance of glucose in the urine. Sugar metabolism disorders lead to disorders of lipid, protid and electrolyte metabolism. These disorders cause many serious complications for patients or can lead to coma and death if not treated promptly.
To confirm a person has diabetes, base on 1 of the following 4 criteria:
– Fasting blood glucose (FPG) ≥ 126mg / dl (7.0 mmol / L). (Hunger is defined as a caloric intolerance for at least 8 hours).
– Blood glucose 2 hours after the test tolerating 75g oral glucose (2h-PG) ≥200mg / dL (11.1mmol / L). Laboratory testing should be performed as described by WHO.
– HbA1C ≥ 6.5%. This test is performed using a high-pressure liquid chromatography method).
Any blood glucose ≥ 200mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l) in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia (eating a lot, drinking a lot, urinating a lot, losing weight) or having an attack of acute hyperglycemia.
Diabetes often comes with other metabolic disorders, so once diagnosed with diabetes, tests should be done to detect the accompanying disorders and detect complications of diabetes such as: Blood fat , blood uric acid, urine test, proteinuria, kidney function, electrocardiogram, ultrasound of blood vessels, fundoscopy, vision test, eye pressure …
Controlling blood sugar helps to avoid dangerous complications.
Control your blood sugar with your diet
Diet is the most important issue in diabetes treatment with the aim to ensure adequate nutrition, balanced enough in quantity and quality to be able to properly regulate blood sugar, maintain weight. As desired, to ensure that patients are healthy enough to function and work suitable for each individual.
The basic rule of diet for diabetics is to limit glucide (carbohydrates) to avoid hyperglycemia after eating and to moderate fat, especially saturated fatty acids, to avoid conversion disorders. chemical.
The diet of the patient must be formulated to provide the patient’s body with a relatively stable amount of sugar and most importantly, the time and quantity of food in meals and snacks must be reasonable and reasonable. .
Energy Needs: Diabetics have the same energy needs as normal people. Needs increase or decrease and vary depending on the health status of each person. Depending on age, gender, type of work (heavy or light), physical condition (thin or fat), but the general energy need for patients treated in the hospital is 25Kcal / kg / day. The ratio between energy-generating components is as follows:
Protein (protein): The amount of protein should be 0.8g / kg / day for adults. If the diet has too much protein, it is not best for patients with early kidney disease. In the diet of people with diabetes, the rate of energy due to protein should reach 15-20% of dietary energy.
Lipids (fat): Eat moderate fat and reduce animal fat because it is high in saturated fatty acids. Fat, especially saturated fatty acids that easily cause atherosclerosis, but on the other hand fats provide energy (in return for the energy provided by the glucide) so eat unsaturated fatty acids. Many in vegetable oils such as sesame oil (sesame oil), soybean oil, sunflower oil … The energy ratio due to fat should be 25% of the total dietary energy and should not exceed 30%. The control of dietary fat also helps prevent atherosclerosis.
Glucid (carbohydrates): In diabetes, blood sugar tends to skyrocket after eating but cannot be converted to provide energy for the body, so the diet must be limited in glucide. Complex glucides in the form of seeds and tubers should be used. It is extremely limited to simple sugars and foods high in sugar (cakes, candies, soft drinks …). The percentage of energy provided by glucide should reach 50-60% of the total dietary energy.
Nutrition is very important for blood sugar control.
To make food choices easier for diabetics, food is divided into categories with different levels of glucide:
Types with a glucid content of ≥ 20%: It is necessary to abstain from or minimize because when eaten, it increases blood sugar quickly, including cakes, jams, candies, soft drinks and sweet fruits (dried jackfruit, dried lychee , dry longan …).
Type with a glucid content of 10-20%: Should be eaten limited (can eat 2-3 times a week with a moderate amount) including some relatively sweet fruits such as tangerines, apples, breast milk, custard-apple, persimmon Siamese, ripe mangoes, soy milk, legumes (yellow beans, peas …).
Type with glucid content ≤ 5%: Patients can use every day, including meat, fish, tofu (moderate amount), most fresh green vegetables and some less sweet fruits such as : melon, watermelon, grapes, ripe … (unlimited use).
For people with diabetes should split into several small meals to avoid hyperglycemia after eating. Can be divided into 5-6 small meals a day. In patients treated with slow-acting insulin may have hypoglycemia during the night, so it is advisable to give extra meals before bedtime.
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