A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the urethra, bladder, ureter, or kidneys. E. Coli bacteria are considered the main cause of UTI, but the disease can still arise for many other reasons.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are fairly common, and are more common in women than men. So what is the cause of UTI? Let’s find out with Health CPN.
What is the cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
The most common causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) (about 80%) are strains of E. coli bacteria that normally live in the large intestine. However, many other types of bacteria sometimes cause infections (such as Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Proteus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Serratia and Neisseria spp.). But generally, the above causes are less common than E. coli.
In addition, fungi (Candida and Cryptococcus spp) and some parasites (Trichomonas and Schistosoma) can also cause UTI. Schistosoma causes other problems, with bladder infection only part of its complex infectious process. In the United States, most infections are caused by Gram-negative bacteria with E. coli.
Risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs)
There are many risk factors for a UTI. In general, any interruption or impedance of normal urine flow (about 50 cc per hour in normal adults) is a risk factor for UTI.
For example, kidney stones, spasm of the urethra, prostate gland or anatomical abnormalities in the urinary tract increase the risk of infection. This is due to the leaching effects of the urine stream. To be effective, the pathogens must “resist the flow” because the majority of the pathogens enter through the urethra and have to go upwards (against the urinary flow barrier) bladder, ureter, and kidney.
Many researchers report that women are more vulnerable to UTIs than men because their urethra is very short and the exit (or entrance to pathogens) is close to the anus and vagina.
Patients who use a urinary catheter are also at high risk, as the catheter does not have a protective immune system to remove the bacteria and connect directly to the bladder. Catheters are designed to reduce the incidence of pre-existing viral infections (incorporate antibacterial agents into the catheter to prevent the growth of bacteria), but are not used by clinicians because of the short effect. they are expensive and they are concerned about further bacterial growth.
Many reports show that women who use diaphragms or have a sexual partner who uses a condom with a sterile foam have a higher risk of urinary tract infections. In addition, sexually active women have a higher risk of developing a UTI. The term “honeymoon cystitis” applies to urinary tract infections caused by first sexual intercourse or UTIs after a short period of regular sexual activity.
Men over the age of 60 have a higher risk of getting a UTI because many men over the age of or older will develop enlarged prostate glands, causing a slow, empty bladder. In addition, older men and women are also at increased levels of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because they do not use condoms as younger generations do.
Occasionally, people with septicemia (bacteria in the blood) have infectious bacteria located in the kidneys, called blood transfusion. Likewise, people with infections related to the urinary tract (such as prostate, testes, or fistula) are more likely to have a UTI.
In addition, patients who undergo urethral surgery are also at increased risk of UTIs. According to some clinicians, pregnancy does not increase the risk of urinary tract infections. Several other doctors claim an increased risk between 6 and 26 weeks of pregnancy. However, the majority agree that if a UTI occurs during pregnancy, the risk of having a UTI will develop seriously, weakening the kidneys, affecting the baby’s weight. Patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes or those who are immunosuppressed (HIV or cancer patients) are also at higher risk for UTIs.
When you suspect that you have symptoms of a urinary tract infection, do not hesitate to see your doctor for treatment as soon as possible.
The articles of Hello Health Group and Health CPN are for reference only, and are not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
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